Since its foundation, Saint-Elzéar has had an important forestry vocation. This industry has always been the economic engine of the municipality, where a forestry cooperative was created in 1944. The cave of Saint-Elzéar is an important tourist attraction in the municipality. More than 200,000 years old, it has a variety of bones and concretions and is accessible to the public for a visit.
Located in the central part of the MRC of Bonaventure, the municipality of Saint-Elzéar covers an area of 206.47 km², occupied by 440 inhabitants (2020).